The condition of mangroves pre- and post- tsunami and the socioeconomic role of mangrove forests in the livelihoods of coastal communities along the west coast of Aceh province, Indonesia are examined. The findings indicate that community livelihoods are significantly linked to the mangrove ecosystem. However, most of the mangrove rehabilitation programs are conservation orientated, aimed primarily at land conservation, and are not necessarily linked with livelihood options for local people or integrated resource management. This is a cause for concern as rehabilitation will only succeed when conservation measures are balanced with local community needs to obtain sustainable benefits from the rehabilitated systems. The rehabilitation efforts do involve the communities to a certain extent, but a more holistic and integrated approach needs to be adopted to ensure better management and sustainability of the rehabilitated mangrove forests.