Aquatic agricultural systems (AAS) are systems in which the annual production dynamics of freshwater and/or coastal ecosystems contribute significantly to total household income.
The focus of this paper is on the governance of small-scale or municipal fisheries in the Philippines in light of the critical role they play in the livelihoods of coastal communities and in the nation as a whole. The information and insights presented in this lessons learned brief derive from the project entitled Strengthening Governance and Sustainability of Small-Scale Fisheries Management in the Philippines: An Ecosystem Approach.
The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (CRP AAS) was approved by the CGIAR Fund Council in July, 2011. Solomon Islands, one of five countries targeted by the program, began its rollout with a five month planning phase between August and December of 2011. Subsequent steps of the Program rollout include scoping, diagnosis and design. This report is the first to be produced during the scoping phase in Solomon Islands; it addresses the national setting and provides basic information on the context within which the AAS Program will operate.
Thailand is currently one of the ten largest fishing nations in the world. In 1996, fish production reached 3.7 million t with 90% of the production coming from the marine fisheries sector and 10% from inland fisheries. Thai fishing operates in four fishing grounds namely, the Gulf of Thailand, the Andaman Sea, the South China Sea and the Bay of Bengal. However with the establishment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in 1977, Thailand lost over 300 000 km2 of traditional fishing grounds.
Bangladesh has an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of 164 000 km2 and a continental shelf area of 66 440 km2. Artisanal (small scale) fisheries extend from the coast to 40 m while industrial (commercial scale) fisheries operate beyond 40 m depth. The coastal fisheries of Bangladesh exploit a complex multi-species resource. There are 18 demersal and pelagic species, seven species of larger pelagic and 10 shrimp species that are commercially important among the fishes exploited.
The majority of rural farmers in Nepal are small holders and their livelihood is based on agriculture. Three projects on small- scale aquaculture, with focus on women’s involvement, were completed in Kathar and Kawasoti Village Development Committees (VDCs) of Chitwan and Nawalparasi districts, respectively during 2000-2007. Based on the experience from these projects, guidelines/ steps for the development of small-scale aquaculture in rural areas were drawn.
The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) is pursuing a Research in Development approach that emphasizes the importance of embedding research in the development context. Reflecting this emphasis the six elements of this approach are a commitment to people and place, participatory action research, gender transformative research, learning and networking, partnerships, and capacity building. It is through the careful pursuit of these six elements that we believe that the program will achieve the development outcomes we aspire to, and do so at scale.
Effective partnership is central to the CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agriculture Systems (AAS). We recognize that many organizations are working to improve the lives of people living in aquatic agricultural systems, and together they spend hundreds of millions of dollars there each year.
This paper presents a tentative estimate of the parameters L8 and K of the von Bertalanffy growth function, and an estimate of total mortality derived from the analysis, using the ELEFAN I and II programs, of length-frequency data on the snapper Etelis carbunculus (Lutjanidae) collected on seamounts of the Kingdom of Tonga, South Pacific.
Water productivity is defined as the amount of agricultural output per unit of water depleted and can be applied to crops, trees livestock and fish. This chapter reviews challenges and opportunities to improve water productivity in socially equitable ways and in different agro-climatic systems. In areas with ample water supply, developing new and making better use of existing water resources are options, whereas in areas with physical water scarcity, better water harvesting and storage is warranted.