Fisheries are an important source of animal protein for most of Thailand’s population, particularly in provinces on or near the coast. Between 1978 and 1997 the per capita consumption of fish averaged 24 kg·capita-1 annually. In 1995, about 535 210 people were involved in the fisheries sector and 44% of these were engaged in small scale marine capture fisheries. Since 1982, Thailand has faced problems with the development of marine capture fisheries and their over-exploitation which has increased fishery conflicts and disputes with neighboring countries.
Fisheries are an important source of protein and employment for Sri Lanka’s population. The declaration of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in 1976 gave the country a water area larger than its land area. The coastal fisheries resources consist of small and large pelagic fish, demersal and coral reef fish, invertebrates, shrimps and crabs. The small pelagic fish contribute 70% of the catch from coastal waters with an estimated annual production of 152 752 t in 1997.
An account is given of the general pattern regarding trade in fish products. Developed countries import more than they export, whereas developing countries import less. Problems involved and remedies are discussed, considering Southeast Asia in particular.
Analysis from research and practice in Africa shows that fishing communities are hardly reached by HIV-related services, education, and business services, partly because of the efforts and costs involved and a lack of good practice in reaching out to these often remote areas. At the same time, fish traders, especially women, travel regularly to remote fishing camps to purchase fish. Although female fish traders may be exposed to HIV, violence and abuse in their interactions and relationships with fishermen, economic necessity keeps them in this trade.
Commercial trade is a major driver of over-exploitation of wild species, but the pattern of demand and how it responds to changes in supply is poorly understood. Here we explore the markets for snakes from Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia to evaluate future exploitation scenarios, identify entry points for conservation and, more generally, to illustrate the value of multi-scale analysis of markets to traded wildlife conservation. In Cambodia, the largest driver of snake exploitation is the domestic trade in snakes as crocodile food.
Food safety standards in the seafood trade between developing country exporters and developed country importers have been a topic of much discussion in the trade literature. As an important source of foreign currency earnings and employment for many lower income developing countries, stricter safety standards in seafood may have the potential to pose barriers to trade, especially for many Asian seafood exporters. This paper investigates the impact of stricter drug residue (chloramphenicol) standards on crustacean imports to Canada, the EU15, Japan, and the United States.
This chapter examines pangasius catfish aquaculture in Vietnam in the context of changing social relations of production, European consumer trends and regulation. In particular we are interested in how the rise of 'sociotechnical' environmental regulatory networks in the form of quality standards and third-party certififcation have altered power relations between consumers and producers across global space.
The fisheries sector of Vietnam plays an important role in the social and economic development of the country. The sector contributes about 3% of the GDP and fish contributes about 40% of animal protein consumption in the country. In 1999, total fisheries production amounted to 1.8 million t. Of this, 1.2 million t was derived from marine capture fisheries and 0.6 million t from aquaculture. Fish exports were valued at US$971.12 million in the same year. Vietnam’s marine fisheries and coastal aquaculture have further potential for development.
A conceptual framework, drawn from an approach to poverty reduction known as the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA), is applied to understanding the role of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) marketing systems in southwest Bangladesh. Freshwater prawn marketing potentially provides economic returns and social benefits to the rural poor. Although the potential benefits are great, a number of constraints were identified for the longterm sustainability of prawn marketing systems.
This chapter focuses on Africa and illustrates some of the ways in which fish trade affects development – with positive, negative and sometimes unclear outcomes. Although Africa is a minor player in global fish trade (Africa accounts for around five percent of global fish production and global fish trade), fisheries trade nonetheless has important local development impacts. Whilst some of those impacts are clear, others are underreported and poorly understood.