Over the years, aquaculture has developed as one of the fastest growing food production sectors in Nepal. However, local fish supplies have been extremely inadequate to meet the ever increasing demand in the country. Nepal imports substantial quantities of fish and fish products from India, Bangladesh, Thailand, and elsewhere.
This short note has outlined the critical role of natural resource governance to Cambodia’s prospects for sustained economic growth, poverty reduction, and food security. It has also introduced a range of challenges to improving natural resource governance, at the level of strategic goals as well as institutional capacities and processes. It is intended as a launchpad for discussion, not to provide specific answers but to focus attention on key questions that can form the basis of a collaborative agenda for policy dialogue and research.
In July 2011, the CGIAR approved the CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) in recognition of the importance of these systems and the potential they provide for reducing poverty. Our goal is to reduce poverty and improve food security for people whose livelihoods depend on aquatic agricultural systems.
Analysis from research and practice in Africa shows that fishing communities are hardly reached by HIV-related services, education, and business services, partly because of the efforts and costs involved and a lack of good practice in reaching out to these often remote areas. At the same time, fish traders, especially women, travel regularly to remote fishing camps to purchase fish. Although female fish traders may be exposed to HIV, violence and abuse in their interactions and relationships with fishermen, economic necessity keeps them in this trade.
A conceptual framework, drawn from an approach to poverty reduction known as the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA), is applied to understanding the role of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) marketing systems in southwest Bangladesh. Freshwater prawn marketing potentially provides economic returns and social benefits to the rural poor. Although the potential benefits are great, a number of constraints were identified for the longterm sustainability of prawn marketing systems.
Aquaculture is equated with the reduction of poverty by intergovernmental agencies such as the FAO, which advocate the promotion of small-scale aquaculture through project-based interventions. There is a lack of convincing empirical evidence to support the efficacy of this type of intervention, however. Meanwhile, commercial cultured freshwater fish production has increased hugely throughout Asia, despite limited direct donor or government support. Its impact with respect to poverty also remains ambiguous, however.
This brief examines the fisheries sector in Zambia. Fisheries sector has made a small contribution (1.24%) to the country's national GDP. However, It is estimated that more than 20 percent of animal protein intake for people in Zambia is from fish. Hence there is an important role for fish and fish products in the food and nutrition security of the Zambian population, especially the urban poor and people living with HIV and AIDS (PLHIV).
Fisheries and aquaculture both contribute to meeting the Millennium Development Goals but vulnerability to climate change threatens the contribution that they make to development. Impacts of climate change on small-scale fisheries are of great relevance to poverty reduction. Poverty undermines the resilience of social-ecological systems such as fisheries. The majority of the world’s 250 million fisherfolk lives in areas that are highly exposed to climate change.
Cambodia is highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change on fisheries, which supply livelihoods for millions and up to 80% of all animal protein in the diet. Most fisheries are highly variable by nature and subject to environmental change, including climate change. Hydropower dam construction, intensified fishing pressure and macroeconomic drivers are likely to affect Cambodian fisheries more immediately and visibly than climate change.
This issues brief proposes an agenda for markets and trade research that supports pro-poor development of aquaculture. It summarises key trends and issues relating to global aquaculture development and identifies critical markets and trade dimensions. Coinciding with renewed interest and change in global agricultural research, this brief is targeted to aquaculture development practitioners and researchers. It aims to provoke discussion on the key areas of markets-related analysis needed to ensure that aquaculture research delivers the strongest poverty reduction and food security outcomes.