A mass-balance steady-state trophic model of the coastal fisheries ecosystem off the West Coasts of Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia (10 - 60 m depth) was constructed using the Ecopath software. The ecosystem models were partitioned into 29 ecological/trophic groups. The input values (e.g. biomasses) for selected groups were obtained from the research (trawl) surveys conducted in the area in 1972. The estimated mean trophic level of the fisheries catch for both models is about 3.3.
Fisheries are an important source of animal protein for most of Thailand’s population, particularly in provinces on or near the coast. Between 1978 and 1997 the per capita consumption of fish averaged 24 kg·capita-1 annually. In 1995, about 535 210 people were involved in the fisheries sector and 44% of these were engaged in small scale marine capture fisheries. Since 1982, Thailand has faced problems with the development of marine capture fisheries and their over-exploitation which has increased fishery conflicts and disputes with neighboring countries.
Relative biomass per recruit of adult (i.e. sexually mature) fin to shellfish is shown to help in identifying levels of fishing mortality likely to lead to recruitment overfishing. This is illustrated with data from a Malaysian penaeid shrimp fishery.
Indonesia’s fisheries exports rose from 2 206 t in 1970 to 598 385 t in 1996 with a subsequent export value rise from US$0.69 billion to US$1.78 billion. The surplus in the balance of trade (BOT) was US$1.59 billion in 1996. The fisheries exports were predominantly shrimp, tuna, skipjack and demersal fishes. Large scale fisheries operations are prevalent in the Java Sea. The dominant fishing gear is hook-and-line (40%), gillnet (31%), traps (10%), seine net and lift-net (6%), purse seine (1%), shrimp net with BED (0.04%) and others (6%). The large scale fisheries e.g.
It is time to recognize the crucial role of small-scale farmers in Asian aquaculture production and trade. The socially and economically important smallscale sector – the “mainstay” of Asian aquaculture – is innovative, but faced with constraints in modern markets. The sector needs investment from public and private sectors to compete and thrive. Another challenge is to develop certification programs in ways that promote responsible aquaculture expansion with due consideration to small-scale farming.
Fish has been a staple food for over a billion people. Its demand is increasing due to growing population and awareness about health benefits of aquatic animal food. Disappointingly, wild catch worldwide is on the decline and aquaculture is emerging as the only solution. It grew at 9%/yr in the last 10 years becoming the fastest growing food production sector. At present, aquaculture produces only about 45 million t per year but it needs to be doubled by 2030 to meet its growing demand. Asia produces over 85% of the global farmed fish - mostly by small-scale farmers.
The shrimp industry in Bangladesh is the major fisheries foreign exchange earner. The various processing industries consist of freezing plants, smoking/drying factories and meal factories. Details are given of the freezing plants ofBangladesh, quality control laboratories and smoking factories, and also the various shrimp products produced. Suggestions are made for improved production.
An account is given of shrimp farming and its benefits to India, discussing effective land use, the use of naturalshrimp seed resources, foreign exchange and employment in rural areas.
Culture of shrimp, mainly Penaeus monodon, makes an important contribution to Bangladesh's aquaculture industry. Shrimp hatcheries are the foundation on which the shrimp industry is built. Hatchery performance and management therefore has extremely important implications for the long-term viability of the entire shrimp sector, especially given its vulnerability to diseases such as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).
A preliminary mass-balance trophic model was constructed for the coastal fisheries ecosystem of the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia (0 - 120 m depth). The ecosystem was partitioned into 15 trophic groups, and biomasses for selected groups were obtained from research (trawl) surveys conducted in the area in 1987 and 1991. Trophic interactions of the groups are presented. The network analysis indicates that fishing fleets for demersal fishes and prawns have a major direct or indirect impact on most high-trophic level groups in the ecosystem.