Wealth, rights, and resilience: An agenda for governance reform in small-scale fisheries

The diversity of social, ecological and economic characteristics of smallscale fisheries in developing countries means that context-specific assessments are required to understand and address shortcomings in their governance. This article contrasts three perspectives on governance reform focused alternately on wealth, rights and resilience, and argues that – far from being incompatible – these perspectives serve as useful counterweights to one another, and together can serve to guide policy responses.

Socioeconomics and small-scale fisheries

Socioeconomic aspects of small-scale fisheries in southeast Asia are considered. Income levels in fisheries were generally found to be lower than comparable groups within the same community. Country differences occurred and some of the factors responsible for these income differences include: 1) type of gear and how it is used; 2) marketing structures; 3) race, religion or caste; 4) government programmes; and 5) introduction of aquaculture. It is believed that further research and information are required for the industry.

Socioeconomic and bioeconomic performance of Philippine fisheries in the recent decades

The fishing industry in the Philippines was tantamount to a marine capture fishery in the 1950s to 1960s. Aquaculture and inland fishery production were not significant. Only during the 1970s did aquaculture and inland capture fisheries contribute significantly to fish production. From 250 000 t fish production in 1951, this increased substantially to 1.6 million t in the 1990s. An average 4.3% was contributed by fisheries to the gross domestic product from 1988 - 98. Fisheries export earnings reached P12 billion in the 1990s.

Small-scale fisheries through the wellbeing lens

Despite longstanding recognition that small-scale fisheries make multiple contributions to economies, societies and cultures, assessing these contributions and incorporating them into policy and decision-making has suffered from a lack of a comprehensive integrating ‘lens’. This paper focuses on the concept of ‘wellbeing’ as a means to accomplish this integration, thereby unravelling and better assessing complex social and economic issues within the context of fisheries governance.

The role of fisheries sector in the coastal fishing communities of Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is an island country with a land area of 65 610 km2. With the declaration of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in 1976, the country gained sovereign rights over an ocean area of 536 000 km2 and EEZ extending from 24 to 200 nm. The continental shelf is about 26 000 km2 with an average width of around 22 km, and the coastline is 1 100 km long. The total annual fish production of Sri Lanka was 25 000 t in 1952 and 269 850 t in 1998. Major fish species caught in Sri Lankan waters are skipjack, blood fish, yellow fin tuna, mullet, shark, trevally, Spanish mackerel, prawns, lobsters.

Resilience and social thresholds in small-scale fishing communities

Change has become a pervasive global force with implications for the sustainability of social–ecological systems. In this context, understanding how much disturbance systems can absorb, where critical thresholds lie, and what systems might look like if a threshold is crossed are critical research questions. This paper explores resilience and social thresholds in two coastal communities in Mozambique by having fishers define their system identity, identify potential system thresholds, and explain how they would respond to crossing a threshold.

Profitability of small-scale fisheries in Elmina, Ghana

In order to achieve sustainable fishing livelihoods in coastal communities, data on profitability of small-scale fisheries relative to fish species hauled and gear types used by fishermen is required as part of a broader fisheries management strategy. This study was undertaken with this in mind. Findings from this study suggest high rates of exploitation, in that stocks generally cannot provide for increased economic return in the face of increased investment.

Operationalizing the ecosystem approach to small-scale fisheries Management in the Philippines: The Iligan Bay Alliance of Misamis Occidental

This paper describes the application of the participatory diagnosis and adaptive management (PDAM) framework to analyze the governance of small-scale fisheries and the potential for adopting the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF) in Misamis Occidental, Philippines. Using the Rapid Appraisal of a Fisheries Management System (RAFMS) as a complementary methodology, the paper provides key information on stakeholders’ perception on scaling-up of fisheries management.

Socioeconomic and bioeconomic analysis of coastal resources in central and northern Java, Indonesia

Indonesia’s fisheries exports rose from 2 206 t in 1970 to 598 385 t in 1996 with a subsequent export value rise from US$0.69 billion to US$1.78 billion. The surplus in the balance of trade (BOT) was US$1.59 billion in 1996. The fisheries exports were predominantly shrimp, tuna, skipjack and demersal fishes. Large scale fisheries operations are prevalent in the Java Sea. The dominant fishing gear is hook-and-line (40%), gillnet (31%), traps (10%), seine net and lift-net (6%), purse seine (1%), shrimp net with BED (0.04%) and others (6%). The large scale fisheries e.g.

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