An Economic Analysis of Fish Demand and Livelihood Outcomes of Small-scale Aquaculture in Myanmar
The thesis focuses on two main topics. One topic is an analysis of the disaggregated fish demand system. Empirical evidence on whether the aquaculture sector can meet household demand through adequate availability of and accessibility to fish is vital to ensure household food and nutrition security and understand the future of the fish demand. The second main topic focuses on the two aspects of production based on SSA farms; production efficiency and impacts on welfare outcomes from the adoption of sustainable aquaculture (SA) technologies. This thesis findings contribute to the current debate that the development of the aquaculture sector can help achieve some of the SDGs. In particular, aquaculture can help end hunger through increased food security by making fish more widely available and accessible by increasing the supply of fish. Moreover, aquaculture can improve gender equality and women’s empowerment through creating employment opportunities linked to the aquaculture sector. Given the lower technical efficiency level and positive welfare impacts of SA technologies, it is recommended that the government and other development organizations disseminate information on the improved aquaculture practices and suitable input use through improved extension services to SSA farmers. Due to the dominance of a single fish species in the aquaculture sector, the government needs to support research and development programs in the hatchery sector for a new generation of species. Another recommendation is to reformulate the current "Farmland Law 2012" because it puts restrictions on converting agricultural land to fish ponds, which is preventing farmers entering the aquaculture sector legally. The above policy recommendations are crucial to achieve growth in the SSA sector and increase women’s intra-household decision-making power, thereby opening the door to improve livelihoods.