Fish seed and feed value chains analysis and their critical factors for aquaculture development in Tanzania

Fish seed and feed value chains analysis and their critical factors for aquaculture development in Tanzania
Seeds and feeds are among the most important inputs required for sustainable aquaculture industry development in any country worldwide. However, the value chain analysis of seeds and feeds in most developing countries including Tanzania has not been mapped, and the key actors are not identified and characterized. To address this knowledge gap, we mapped the fish seed and feed value chains in Morogoro, Dar es Salaam, Coast and Lindi regions in Tanzania, evaluated their performances, analyzed their contributions to aquaculture growth and finally assessed the critical factors impending aquaculture development before proposing appropriate strategies for upgrading. We found that the fish seed value chain comprised broodstock suppliers, seed producers, seed marketers, traders and fish farmers. Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) and African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) seeds produced were primarily sold to farmers at an advanced fry stage (1 to 5 g) at a price ranging from USD 0.09 to 0.13 and USD 0.22 to 0.27, respectively. The feed value chain consisted of suppliers, producers, importers, traders and fish farmers. The feeds produced were powdered, compressed and extruded pellets and granules sold at an average price of USD 2.50/kg. The seed and feed value chains in the four regions drive the aquaculture development and employ 137 and 109 people, respectively. The fish farming was mainly affected by insufficient seeds and feeds; inadequate extension services, inadequate technical skills in seed and feed production; limited farming equipment; insufficient capital and limited access to market. We propose increasing seed and feed production through collaborative research between researchers and the private sector, enhancing delivery of extension services to all fish farmers, providing fiscal incentives to hatchery and feed investors, organizing hatchery owners into associations, and undertaking marketing awareness campaign for aquaculture growth in the country for food, income and employment generation.
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